El presente Decreto modifica parcialmente el Decreto Nº de , en lo relacionado con la prohibición de importar, producir o distribuir en el país gasolinas. DECRETO DE ELKIN RICARDO AMAYA ROMERO. Loading Unsubscribe from ELKIN. Decreto de - UNAD. Melany Guevara Polania. Loading Unsubscribe from Melany Guevara.


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Air quality in animal confinements is directly related to animal metabolisms, releasing heat, humidity and carbon dioxide CO2 to the air from respiration and gases from digestion and feces such as NH3, CH4, H2S and dust.

Heating systems produce CO and NO2 due to incomplete combustion which produces decreto 948 de 1995 greater than those allowed by Colombian legislation Decreto, and international countries such as decreto 948 de 1995 USA National Organization for Security and Health NIOSH, and Brazil NR,which represent some of the largest livestock development industries in the world.

Among these gases, ammonia is the pollutant most often found in air inside animal confinements which deteriorates the health and productivity of animals and people.

DECRETO DE by Laura Diaz on Prezi

Hence, the study of ammonia has attracted the attention of researchers for years in various different decreto 948 de 1995.

The objective of this work was to discover important aspects which must be taken into account in animal confinements, such as permissible ammonia concentrations.

The developed models calculate concentrations and emissions, which can be used in countries such as in Decreto 948 de 1995where works and knowledge on environmental control and the production of gases in livestock confinements are few.

Ammonia, air pollution, environment, livestock confinements. The inhalation of particulates and organic vapors can lead to respiratory tract diseases in humans and animals.

In this sense, air quality problems in animal confinements must consider the following two aspects: First, pollutants can directly cause alterations in the animal as a result of agent-body interactions mechanical irritation, local inflammation etc.

Decreto 948 de 1995, the excess of certain components may increase stress in the animal leading to a decline in its immune system, and consequent vulnerability to diseases and decrease in productive and reproductive performance.

The emission of NH3 from agricultural activities in Europe, excluding the former USSR, doubled between and [5, 41], while during the same time period in the NetherlandsNH3 emissions increased by a decreto 948 de 1995 of 2.

This increase in NH3 emissions has contributed significantly to the deposit of critical levels of nitrogen N in soil in many European countries, leading to the eutrophication and acidification of soils ]16, 17].

From the given information, livestock producers are current seeking to guarantee animal welfare conditions, improve the well-being of people working directly in production systems and to minimize environmental impacts. All these propositions have a direct relationship with air quality and concentration and emission of harmful gases in livestock confinements as well as the atmosphere.

Ammonia NH3 Ammonia is a colored gas with a penetrating odor; it is lighter than air and soluble in water.

DECRETO DE by Andrea Velásquez on Prezi

Once emitted, NH3 can be quickly converted into ammonium NH4through reactions with nitric or sulfuric acid easily found in these environments. A decreto 948 de 1995 is a toxic pollutant most often found in air within livestock confinements, and produced from the microbial decomposition of uric acid found in manure.

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High ammonia concentrations are usually found in closed buildings. This gas can act as an irritant to the decreto 948 de 1995 and respiratory membranes, developing a chronic stress that can affect the course of infectious diseases and also directly influence the growth of young animals.

The maximum concentrations, suggested by reference [31], indicate that humans may be exposed to 25 ppm decreto 948 de 1995 duration of 8 hours, 35 ppm for 15 minutes and 50 ppm for 5 minutes.

To reference [46], in an experiment conducted in poultry houses in the United States, produced in isolated buildings with tunnel type negative ventilation systems, detected ammonia concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ppm, with an average of To determine the concentration of ammonia in industrial poultry houses, and given that determination and control helps to increase production and reduction of levels of decreto 948 de 1995, permanent monitoring of ammonia production of ammonia is performed by control systems.

W cited by [45]. Given that knowledge of ammonia emissions are important to determine the local and regional impacts of industries on regional air quality, a reference [15] found that poultry houses with new and re-used bedding contribute to 8. Birds are grown to different weights, and thus by equation 1the total emission decreto 948 de 1995 bird varies by market weight.

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LUin naturally ventilated facilities with high currents of air. For broilers, were found averages of 3. In tropical climates several studies have been done to determine concentrations in poultry, but no emissions [6].

Among these works has been done by the reference [24], where they found the distribution of ammonia in a shed type tunnel Hog buildings Decreto 948 de 1995 references [21, 22], reported that average ammonia concentrations measured in different hog farms in Northern Europe were between 5 and 28 ppm, and registering momentary increases of 50 ppm.

According to references [20, 37], conducting research in HRHB High Rise-Hog Buildings systems in the USA, concentrations of ammonia during the summer are less than those seen during the winter, the period in which the facilities are kept closed ventilation is minimal.

Studies conducted by [38], on high-growth HRHB swine production systems, demonstrated that in structures in which manure pits are found directly below the building, the ammonia concentrations are below 20 ppm in the animal environment, and below 40 ppm in the pits where manure is decreto 948 de 1995.


This behavior was observed for most of the year.

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