ELEMENTOS DEL GRUPO 13 PDF DOWNLOAD

Grupo: Periodo: 2. Configuración electrónica: [He] 2s2 2p2. Estados de oxidación: 4 +2 +4 En combinaciones con otros elementos, el carbono es un elemento ampliamente distribuido en la naturaleza, 13C, (1), (3). Esmeralda y amatista piedras preciosas del grupo 13 de los elementos de la tabla periódica. Esmeralda y amatista piedras preciosas del grupo 13 de los. Los diferentes miembros del grupo de elementos nativos se forman bajo I 53 At 85 Al 13 B 5 Ga 31 In 49 Tl 81 P 15 N 7 As 33 Sb 51 Bi 83 (Uut) (Uup)


ELEMENTOS DEL GRUPO 13 PDF DOWNLOAD

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ELEMENTOS DEL GRUPO 13 PDF DOWNLOAD


High-purity crystalline boron may be prepared by the vapor phase reduction of boron trichloride or tribromide with hydrogen on electrically heated filaments.

The impure, or amorphous, boron, a brownish-black powder, can be obtained by heating the trioxide with magnesium powder. Elemental boron has an energy band gap of 1.

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It has interesting optical characteristics, transmitting portions of the infrared, and is a poor conductor of elementos del grupo 13 at room temperature, but a good conductor at high temperature.

Amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares to provide a distinctive green color, and in rockets as an igniter.

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This pentahydrate is used in very large quantities in the manufacture of insulation fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach. Boric acid is also an important boron compound with major markets in textile fiberglass and in cellulose insulation as a flame retardant.

Use of borax as a mild antiseptic is minor in terms of dollars and tons. Boron compounds are also extensively used in the manufacture of borosilicate glasses. Other boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis.

The isotope boron is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear radiation, and in instruments used for detecting neutrons.

Boron nitride has remarkable properties and can be used to make a material as hard as diamond. The nitride also behaves like an electrical insulator elementos del grupo 13 conducts heat like elementos del grupo 13 metal. It also has lubricating properties similar to graphite.

The hydrides are easily oxidized with considerable energy liberation, and have been studied for use as rocket fuels. Demand is increasing for boron filaments, a high-strength, lightweight material chiefly employed for advanced aerospace structures.

Boron is similar to carbon in that it has a capacity to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares to provide a distinctive green color, and in rockets as an igniter. This pentahydrate is used in very large quantities in the manufacture of insulation fiberglass and sodium perborate bleach.

Boric acid is also an important boron compound with major markets in textile fiberglass and in cellulose insulation as a flame retardant.

Elemento de grupo 13

Use of borax as a mild antiseptic is elementos del grupo 13 in terms of dollars and tons. Boron compounds are also extensively used in the manufacture of borosilicate glasses.

Other boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis. The isotope boron is used as a control for nuclear reactors, as a shield for nuclear radiation, and in instruments used for detecting neutrons.

ELEMENTOS DEL GRUPO 13 PDF DOWNLOAD

Boron nitride has remarkable properties and can be used to make a material as hard as diamond. The nitride also behaves like an electrical insulator but conducts heat like a metal.

It also has lubricating properties similar to graphite. The hydrides are easily oxidized with considerable energy liberation, and have been studied elementos del grupo 13 use as rocket fuels.

Demand is increasing for boron filaments, a high-strength, lightweight material chiefly employed for advanced aerospace structures.

Boron is similar to carbon in that it has a capacity to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Carboranes, metalloboranes, phosphacarboranes, and other families comprise thousands of compounds. Elemental boron and the borates are not considered to elementos del grupo 13 toxic, and they do not require special care in handling.



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