Castro Torres, Juan Antonio. IM ARG Catalano Leupold, Volker. GER Nilsson, Nils Åke. SWE Nilsson. IPIN - Indoor positioning and indoor navigation. Enerbäck, Sven; Nilsson, Daniel; Edwards, Noel; Heglind, Mikael; Alkanderi, Sumaya; Ashton, Curtelin, David; Morales-Alamo, David; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Rasmussen, Peter; Leupold, Anna; Klinger, Ulrike; Jarren, Otfried .


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Mechanisms of Sublingual immunotherapy, p. Clinical Efficacy of Sublingual Immunotherapy, leupold torre nilsson Safety of Sublingual Immunotherapy, p.

Impact of Sublingual Immunotherapy on the natural history of respiratory allergy, p. Sublingual Immunotherapy in Children, p. Guidelines and Recommendations leupold torre nilsson Sublingual Immunotherapy, p. Definition of Sublingual Immunotherapy patient selection, p.

Methodology of Clinical Trials in Sublingual Immunotherapy, p.

Leopoldo Torre Nilsson - IMDb

The rationale proposed for SLIT was to improve the safety and to make the treatment more convenient.

The available meta-analyses are in favor of SLIT rhinitis in adults, asthma, and rhinitis in childrenalthough the conclusions are limited by the great heterogeneity of the studies. Adequately powered, well-designed DBPC-RCTs involving hundreds of patients, published in the last 3 years have clearly confirmed the efficacy and the dose-dependent effect of SLIT for grass allergens in both adults and children.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy SITor allergen vaccination is the practice of administering to allergic subjects increasing amounts of allergen s the allergenic extract or vaccine to achieve hyposensitization, leupold torre nilsson is to reduce the symptoms occurring during the natural exposure to the allergen s itself.

The history leupold torre nilsson SIT began in the first years of the twentieth century, based on the idea of the vaccination against infectious agents. Although the theoretical background was incorrect, SIT was immediately found to be effective in reducing symptoms of hay-fever, its use spread rapidly, and the subcutaneous route SCIT remained therefore the standard leupold torre nilsson.

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Indeed, the idea of administering the allergenic extracts via noninjection routes leupold torre nilsson not as recent as commonly believed. The overall rationale of these attempts was of course that of finding a safer and more convenient route of administration for SIT.


Leupold torre nilsson routes have been variously named, that is, alternative, nonparenteral, noninjection, or local routes. Presently, it is agreed that the most proper terms are local and noninjection, which are equivalent; whereas the word alternative has been abandoned because it might generate confusion with other unconventional medicines.

The oral route was investigated in several clinical trials performed during the s, 9—12 but the clinical results were controversial and, in some cases, important gastrointestinal leupold torre nilsson events were reported.

Sub-Lingual Immunotherapy - Europe PMC Article - Europe PMC

For these reasons, oral administration was gradually abandoned. In this scenario, the interest in noninjection routes of immunotherapy IT increased again, 14 and in the leupold torre nilsson randomized controlled trial with the sublingual route SLIT was published. The original idea supporting SLIT was to achieve a prompt absorption of the vaccine through the sublingual mucosa as happens, for instance with nitroglycerine or nifedipine.

leupold torre nilsson

Indeed, 10 years later, biodistribution studies with radiolabeled allergens in humans, 16,17 consistently showed that the direct absorption of the extract through the oral mucosa is absent or negligible, and that the clinical effect should be rather ascribed to the interaction of the allergen with the mucosal immune system.

Nonetheless, from a clinical point of view, SLIT leupold torre nilsson confirmed to be effective in several controlled studies utilizing either drops or tablets, 18,19 and leupold torre nilsson first pediatric study appeared in In some studies a different method was adopted, the allergen was kept under the tongue and then spat out sublingual-spit.

These studies have confirmed the efficacy of SLIT for these allergens and, more importantly, have demonstrated a dose-effect relationship. In parallel to the clinical trials, postmarketing surveys, 34 mechanistic investigations, 35,36 prevention studies, 37,38 and pharmaco-economic assessments 39 were also published in the last 10 years, so that several aspects of SLIT were gradually clarified.

Concerning safety, all clinical trials and postmarketing surveys have consistently agreed that SLIT is safe, and the majority of side effects are local and leupold torre nilsson.

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