the Teachers' Law (Ley del Profesorado, Ley , ; modified by Law In the case of teachers, Law (article 13) provides. To this end, the Ley Marco, governing the current budget process should be modified, in particular the rules in the education sector included in the ley del profesorado that joined the pubic sector until december 5/ Law PRESENTACIÓNEl presente Proyecto Educativo Institucional es un Plan Estratégico, trabajado y elaborado a partir de un análisis re.


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The process has also had phases. The most recent, sincehas seen government conceding major benefits to teachers and medical worker unions. Wages have risen substantially, contratados have been granted tenure, and tenure ley 25212 ley del profesorado become even more rigid.

This section reviews the basic causes that have driven the downward spiral, and then examines and documents the behavior of each of the key players, providers, government, unions and clients.

The outcome is summarized in terms of the way in which ley 25212 ley del profesorado career and service delivery to the poor have been negatively ley 25212 ley del profesorado.

Causes of Downward Adjustment The low level equilibrium has been produced by four underlying causes: Over the last four decades, successive governments have responded to public pressures for the expansion of basic social services. School enrollment grew substantially, first in primary, later in secondary and university establishments, while the coverage of public health services was extended in both urban and rural areas.

The secular decline followed a cyclical trend around successive fiscal crises, periods of high inflationand electoral recoveries. The fall in government capacity to finance social spending was especially deep and lasting from on, breaking the trend of strong and rising social spending that had lasted since the fifties.

This is evident from the per capita public consumption spending figures shown in Table 3. Between and public consumption rose strongly, at an average annual rate of 3.

Public school enrollment rose at 6. During those years, wages fluctuated at levels two to three times higher than current levels. From tohowever, fiscal capacity began a long decline, causing public ley 25212 ley del profesorado expenditure per capita to drop at an average annual rate of 1.

The impact of this adjustment fell almost entirely on teacher and ley 25212 ley del profesorado wages, as governments continued to accept growing school enrollment demanded by a rising population, as well as the demand for larger health coverage. The number of teachers, in fact, grew at 3.

Central Bank annual reports.

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The long term wage decline for public sector teachers and health professionals is the starting point for this analysis. However, wage trends are poorly documented in ley 25212 ley del profesorado sectors.

The most complete series are based on official scales rather than on observed payments. Household survey data is relatively recent and does not provide much detail on the relation of wages to occupational specializations and histories or to employee profiles.


Personnel records are incomplete and unsystematic in both ministries, with most information available only at mid-level administrative units in different degrees of completion.

During the nineties, ley 25212 ley del profesorado began in both health and education ministries to systematize payrolls using computer databases but much historical information has been lost.

Nonetheless, there is a consensus view that wages have fallen substantially, and it is most clearly documented for teachers.

The decline shown by wage series based on official norms was confirmed in our interviews with older professionals in both sectors. Piecemeal evidence from a variety of sources is presented in Chart 3.

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We identify three reasons for weak enforcement of contract discipline by the government: Ley 25212 ley del profesorado was further undermined by blatant administrative inefficiency, clientelism and corruption. The government lost moral authority for enforcement and the demands of providers and their unions for the loosening of work discipline were legitimized.

Even the Colegio Medico del Peru, which in previous years had devoted itself principally to matters of professional standards and to the provision of benefits to its members, refocused itself toward issues of compensation.

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