One of the fundamental changes that will be introduced by the Convention is the method by which the limitation fund is calculated. LLMC 76 was adopted by the IMO on 19 November and entered into force on 1 December It replaced the International Convention. The LLMC significantly increased the above levels of limitation, in some cases up to %. It also provided for a practically.


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The above figures constitute a relatively modest increase of 51 per cent. Arguably the main factor prompting the latest amendments is the change in monetary values during the period since llmc 1976 convention limits were previously set and the above increase reflects this change.


The above proposal concludes that the changes in the inflation rates between and do not exceed 45 per cent and therefore the amendments in the limitation amounts should reflect the above llmc 1976 convention.

Other contracting states, such as Australia, supported a significantly higher increase of per cent. Llmc 1976 convention approach results in the limitation tonnage for all vessels increasing, and the increases for certain types of vessel, notably vessels of the roll-on roll-off type, are dramatic.

This is due to the change in the method of determining gross tonnage which, under the Tonnage Convention Regulations, is based upon absolute physical characteristics of the vessel rather than the llmc 1976 convention design.

Briefly, for the purposes of the Convention, gross register tonnage is a measure of the total internal capacity of a ship, including that of the underdeck and the tweendeck spaces, the superstructure and deck llmc 1976 convention.

llmc 1976 convention Certain spaces, such as navigational spaces, galleys, stairways etc. Net register tonnage is a measure of the volume of space available for cargo and passengers and is thus a measure of the earning capacity of the vessel.

A look into the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims

It is calculated by deducting from gross tonnage those spaces which are necessary for operating the vessel. Deductions include the master's and crew's accommodation spaces, safety and storage spaces, and the propelling machinery space.

It can be seen from llmc 1976 convention descriptions above that the measurement of tonnage involves different categories of spaces. Exempted spaces are those which are considered essential from the point of view of safety, and deducted spaces are those which are necessary for the operation of the vessel.

The unit of measurement for monetary liability used is the Special Drawing Right SDR which is an interest-bearing international reserve asset created by the IMF in Article 8 of the Protocol provides the limits to be updated in future by means of the 'tacit acceptance' procedure which means that any amendment adopted should have been accepted at the end of a period of eighteen months after the date of notification to all contracting states and llmc 1976 convention enter into force eighteen months after its acceptance, i.

Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims - Wikipedia

The Tojo Maru case is the significant example showing this problem. The most important changes in the limitation convention is that, "salvors" have been added to the list of persons or parties who llmc 1976 convention limit their liability in accordance with the rules of the Convention.

The Article 1 of the Convention increase coverage of entitlement of limitation to shipowner, charterers, managers, operators, slavors, insurer of the parties and any person for whose act, neglect or default the shipowner or salvor is responsible.

The convention recognizes two categories of person entitled to limit, llmc 1976 convention and salvors. The distinction was introduced to minimize the effect of the decision in the "Tojo Maru".

Increased limits of liability enter into force in 2015

What changes have llmc 1976 convention brought in by the amendment to the LLMC ? Under the amendments to the Protocol, the limits are raised as follows: The limit of liability for claims for loss of life or personal injury on ships not exceeding 2, gross tonnage is 3.

For larger ships, the following additional amounts are used in calculating the limitation amount:

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