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modern refrigeration Timeline of low-temperature technology Earliest forms of cooling The seasonal harvesting of snow and ice is an ancient practice estimated to have begun earlier than B. However, little is known about the construction of these ice cellars or what the ice was used for.

Other ancient cultures such as the Greeks and the Romans dug large snow pits insulated with grass, chaff, or branches of trees as cold storage. Like the Jews, the Greeks and Romans did not use ice and snow to preserve food, but primarily as a means to cool beverages.

The Modern refrigeration also developed methods to cool beverages, but in lieu of using ice to cool water, the Egyptians cooled water by putting boiling water in shallow earthen jars and placing them on the roofs of their houses at night.

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Slaves would moisten the outside of the jars and the resulting evaporation would cool the water. The ancient modern refrigeration of India used this same concept to produce ice.

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The Persians stored ice in a pit called a Yakhchal and may have been the first group of people to use cold storage to preserve food. In the Australian outback modern refrigeration a reliable electricity supply was available where the weather modern refrigeration be hot and dry, many farmers used a " Coolgardie safe ".

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This consisted of a room with hessian "curtains" hanging from the ceiling soaked in water. The water would evaporate and thereby cool the hessian curtains and thereby the air circulating in the room.

This would allow many perishables such as fruit, butter, and cured meats to be modern refrigeration that would modern refrigeration spoil in the heat. Ice cutting and Ice trade Ice harvesting modern refrigeration Massachusetts, showing the railroad line in the background, used to transport the ice.


Beforefew Americans used ice to refrigerate foods due to a lack of ice-storehouses and iceboxes. As these two things became more widely available, individuals modern refrigeration axes and saws to harvest ice for their storehouses.

modern refrigeration

This method proved to be difficult, dangerous, and certainly did not resemble anything that could be duplicated on a commercial scale. In the beginning, Tudor lost thousands of dollars, but eventually turned a profit as he constructed icehouses in Charleston, Modern refrigeration and in the Cuban port town of Havana.

This efficiency gain influenced Tudor to expand his ice market to other towns with icehouses such as New Orleans and Savannah. Ice became a mass-market commodity by the early s with the price of ice dropping from six cents per pound to a half of a cent per pound.

In New York City, ice consumption increased from 12, tons in totons in These early cold storage practices paved the way for many Americans to accept the refrigeration technology modern refrigeration would modern refrigeration take over the country.


The history modern refrigeration artificial refrigeration began when Scottish professor William Cullen designed a small refrigerating machine in Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl etherwhich then boiledabsorbing heat from the surrounding air.

InBenjamin Franklin and John Hadleyprofessor of chemistry, collaborated on a project investigating the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object at Cambridge University modern refrigeration, England. They confirmed that the evaporation of highly volatile liquids, such as alcohol and ether, could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water.

Franklin wrote, "From this experiment, one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer's day". In the English scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures, and inan American expatriate to Great Britain, Jacob Perkinsbuilt the first working vapor-compression refrigeration system in the world.

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It was a closed-cycle that could operate continuously, as modern refrigeration described in his patent: I am enabled to use volatile fluids for the modern refrigeration of producing the cooling or freezing of fluids, and yet at the same time constantly condensing such volatile fluids, and bringing them again into operation without waste.

His prototype system worked although it did not succeed commercially. Modern refrigeration many of the medical experts during this time, Gorrie thought too much exposure to tropical heat led to mental and physical degeneration, as well as the spread of diseases such as malaria.

American engineer Alexander Twining took out a British patent in for a vapour compression system that used ether.

Modern Refrigeration

modern refrigeration The first practical vapour-compression refrigeration system was built by Modern refrigeration Harrisona British journalist who had emigrated to Australia. His patent was for a vapour-compression system using ether, alcohol, or ammonia.

He built a mechanical ice-making machine in on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in GeelongVictoriaand his first commercial ice-making machine followed in

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