The nanofluids applications in the renewable energy field are ever-increasing. One the promising study in this area has done by Ahlatli et al. Nanofluids have been extensively used in a wide variety of engineering applications. For heat transfer processes, this has been primarily driven by the potential. Jump to Response stimuli nanofluids for sensing applications - Applications. Nanofluids are primarily used for their enhanced thermal properties as coolants in heat transfer equipment such as heat exchangers, electronic cooling system(such as flat plate) and radiators. Heat transfer over flat plate has been analyzed by many researchers.‎Smart cooling nanofluids · ‎Nanolubricants · ‎Applications · ‎Thermophysical.


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One of the unique characteristics of the nanofluids was that no deposition layer formed on the heated surface nanofluids applications a pool boiling process. The prepared nanofluids, with no contamination to medium, nanofluids applications fluidity, low viscosity, high stability, and high thermal conductivity, would have potential applications as coolants in advanced thermal systems.

A wet mechanochemical reaction was applied to prepare surfactant-free nanofluids containing double- and single-walled CNTs. Results from the infrared spectrum and zeta potential measurements showed that the hydroxyl groups had been introduced onto nanofluids applications treated CNT surfaces [ 33 ].

The chemical modification to functionalize the surface of carbon nanotubes is a common method to enhance the stability of carbon nanotubes nanofluids applications solvents. Here, we present a review about the surface modification of carbon nanotubes [ 34 ].

Plasma treatment nanofluids applications used to modify the surface characteristics of diamond nanoparticles [ 35 ].

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Through plasma treatment using gas mixtures of methane and oxygen, various polar groups were imparted on the surface of the diamond nanoparticles, nanofluids applications their dispersion property in water. A stable dispersion of titania nanoparticles in an organic solvent of diethylene glycol dimethylether diglyme was successfully prepared using a ball milling process [ 36 ].

In order to enhance dispersion stability of the solution, surface modification of dispersed titania particles was carried out during the centrifugal bead mill process. Surface modification was utilized with silane coupling agents, 3-acryl-oxypropyl trimethoxysilane and trimethoxypropylsilane.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles could be modified by polymethacrylic acid PMAA in aqueous system [ 37 ]. nanofluids applications

A Review on Nanofluids: Preparation, Stability Mechanisms, and Applications

The nanofluids applications groups of nano-ZnO particle surface could interact with carboxyl groups of PMAA and form poly zinc methacrylate complex on the surface of nano-ZnO. The modification did not nanofluids applications the crystalline structure of the ZnO nanoparticles.

Stability Mechanisms of Nanofluids Particles in dispersion may adhere together and form aggregates of increasing size which may settle out due to gravity.


Stability means that the particles do not aggregate at a significant rate. The rate of aggregation is in general determined by the frequency of collisions and the probability of cohesion during collision. DLVO theory suggests that the stability of a particle in solution is determined by the sum of van der Waals attractive and electrical double layer repulsive forces that exist between particles as they approach each other due to the Brownian motion they are undergoing.

If the attractive force is larger than the repulsive force, the two particles will collide, and the suspension is not stable. If the particles have a sufficient high repulsion, the suspensions will exist in stable state.

For stable nanofluids or colloids, the repulsive forces between particles must be dominant. According to the types of repulsion, the fundamental mechanisms that affect colloidal stability are divided into two kinds, one is steric repulsion, and another is electrostatic nanofluids applications repulsion, shown in Figure 2.

For steric stabilization, polymers are always involved into the suspension system, and they will adsorb onto the particles surface, producing an additional steric repulsive force.

For example, Zinc oxide nanoparticles modified by PMAA have good compatibility with nanofluids applications solvents [ 37 ]. Silver nanofluids are very stable due to the protective role of PVP, as it retards the growth and agglomeration of nanoparticles by steric effect. PVP is an efficient agent to improve the stability of graphite suspension [ 22 ].

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