PTOLEMAIC ALEXANDRIA PDF

Read the full-text online edition of Ptolemaic Alexandria . Results 1 - 14 of 14 - Ptolemaic Alexandria, in 3 Volumes by Fraser, P. M. and a great selection of similar Used, New and Collectible Books available now at. Alexander as both Macedonian and Egyptian serves as a model for the dual aspects of Ptolemaic rule and for the city itself. One of Alexandria's.


PTOLEMAIC ALEXANDRIA PDF

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PTOLEMAIC ALEXANDRIA PDF

PTOLEMAIC ALEXANDRIA PDF

A 15th-century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world mapreconstituted from Ptolemy's Geography circa ADindicating the countries of " Serica " and " Sinae " China at the extreme east, beyond the island of "Taprobane" Sri Lankaoversized and the " Aurea Chersonesus " Malay Peninsula.

A 15th century copy of Ptolemy's map of Britain ptolemaic alexandria Ireland. In the second part of the Geography, he provided the necessary topographic lists, and captions for the maps.

The maps in surviving manuscripts of Ptolemy's Geography, however, only date from aboutafter the text was ptolemaic alexandria by Maximus Planudes. It seems likely that the topographical tables in books 2—7 are cumulative texts — texts which were altered and added to as new knowledge became available in the centuries after Ptolemy.

Ptolemaic Kingdom - Wikipedia

A printed map from the 15th century depicting Ptolemy's description of the Ecumeneptolemaic alexandria, Johannes Schnitzer, engraver. Maps based on scientific principles had been made since the time of Eratosthenesin the 3rd century BC, but Ptolemy ptolemaic alexandria map projections.

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It is known from a speech by Eumenius that a world map, an orbis pictus, doubtless based on the Geography, was on display in a school in AugustodunumGaul in the third century. An edition printed at Ulm inincluding woodcut maps, was ptolemaic alexandria first one printed north of ptolemaic alexandria Alps.

The maps look distorted when compared to modern maps, because Ptolemy's data were inaccurate.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

One reason is that Ptolemy estimated the size of the Earth as too small: It is highly probable that these were the same stadion, since Ptolemy switched from the former scale to the latter between the Syntaxis and the Geography, and severely readjusted longitude degrees accordingly.

See also Ancient Greek units of measurement and History of geodesy. Because Ptolemy derived many of his key ptolemaic alexandria from crude longest day values, his latitudes are erroneous on average by roughly a degree 2 degrees for Byzantium, ptolemaic alexandria degrees for Carthagethough capable ancient astronomers knew their latitudes to more like a minute.

Ptolemy's own latitude was in error by 14'. He agreed Geography 1.

Category:Ptolemaic Alexandria - Wikipedia

When switching from stadia per degree tohe or Marinos expanded longitude differences between cities accordingly a point first realized ptolemaic alexandria P. Gosselin inresulting in serious over-stretching of the Earth's east-west scale in degrees, though ptolemaic alexandria distance.

Achieving highly precise longitude remained a problem in geography until the application of Galileo 's Jovian moon method in the 18th century. It must be added that his original ptolemaic alexandria list cannot be reconstructed: Ptolemy's own title is unknown, but may have been the term found in some Greek manuscripts: That it did not quite attain the unrivaled status of the Almagest was, perhaps, because it did not cover some popular areas of the subject, particularly electional astrology interpreting astrological charts for a particular moment to determine the outcome of a course of action to be initiated at that timeand medical astrologywhich were later adoptions.

The great popularity that the Tetrabiblos did possess might be attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art of astrology, and as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as ptolemaic alexandria manual. It speaks in general terms, avoiding illustrations ptolemaic alexandria details of practice.

Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and dismissing practices such as considering the numerological significance of names that he believed to be without sound basis.

Much of the content of the Tetrabiblos was collected from earlier sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be rationalized.

It is, indeed, presented as the second part of the study of astronomy of which the Almagest was the first, concerned with the influences of ptolemaic alexandria celestial bodies in the sublunary sphere.

Thus explanations of a sort are provided for the astrological effects of the planetsbased upon their combined effects of heating, cooling, moistening, and drying.

Ptolemy - Wikipedia

Ptolemy's astrological outlook was quite practical: A collection of one hundred aphorisms about astrology called the Centiloquiumascribed to Ptolemy, was ptolemaic alexandria reproduced and commented on by Arabic, Latin and Hebrew scholars, and often bound together in medieval manuscripts after the Tetrabiblos as a kind of summation.

When Antiochus saw that his kingdom was established, he determined to become king of the land of Egypt, in order that he might reign over both kingdoms. So he invaded Egypt with a strong force, with chariots and elephants and cavalry and with a ptolemaic alexandria fleet.

He engaged King Ptolemy of Egypt in battle, and Ptolemy turned and fled before him, and many were wounded and fell. They captured the fortified cities in the land of Egypt, and he plundered the land of Egypt.



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