Imágenes de resolución moderada (MODIS) indican una correlación positiva. .. Aerosol Index (AI) values are determined from the OMI flown on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft, launched in July . (D2), Resolución No. 22/ por medio de la cual la Secretaría de Estado de Agricultura a través del Departamento de Sanidad Vegetal como Tel: , Ext. , , , , Fax: E-mail. Resolución de del Ministerio de Transporte. • Por la cual se adoptan los límites de pesos y dimensiones en los vehículos de.


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Received Oct 14; Accepted Mar 7.

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To view a copy of this license, visit http: Abstract Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living resolucion 4100 de 2004 the high altitude Andes approximately 12, years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed resolucion 4100 de 2004 most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia.

While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear.

We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: We compare the data of successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs.

Humans residing in the high altitude Central Andes above 2, m.

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Environments characterized by hypoxic - low concentration of atmospheric oxygen- and cold conditions negatively impact the abundance of resources available to sustain human populations 1. More directly both extremes act as stressors on the human body affecting biological processes, e.

resolucion 4100 de 2004 Despite these obstacles archaeological evidence shows that humans began to live seasonally in the high altitude Central Andes almost immediately after the first settlers arrived on the Pacific littoral of central South America, and permanent residence is evident by ca.

These early inhabitants laid the foundations for what would eventually become the most complex societies of late pre-Columbian South America, namely Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca, demonstrating the successful adaptation to the harsh environmental conditions of the Andes.


However, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. It is unknown if the Andes were initially peopled by individuals genetically predisposed with a reduced susceptibility to altitude stress—assuming that individuals suffering from symptoms of e.

While prehistoric Andean societies developed behavioral and cultural adaptations to buffer against low biotic resolucion 4100 de 2004 and cold 1hypoxia constitutes a stress factor acting on human biology that cannot be compensated for by those adaptive mechanisms.

Generations of researchers have found that modern Andean populations like resolucion 4100 de 2004 Quechua and Aymara have physiological traits not only distinctive from South American lowland populations but also other highland populations, e.

Thus while most traits ameliorate negative effects of hypoxia, others could represent maladaptation, e. With the availability of high-throughput sequencing technology, recent genome-wide scans using single nucleotide polymorphism SNP data and whole-genome sequencing data found resolucion 4100 de 2004 for this signature in modern highland populations.

Also, genes linked to arterial oxygen saturation 13increased cardiac vascularization resolucion 4100 de 2004and transcriptional activity in individuals with CMS 9 have been identified as being under selection. The results of these studies are compelling, as they identify candidate genes involved in pathways contributing to hypoxia response.

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But the statistical methods applied in these studies to estimate natural selection are rather indirect as they do nothing more than to detect patterns of novel genomic variation in modern populations that deviate from those expected under neutrality 13 This approach can have a reduced sensitivity to detect selection acting resolucion 4100 de 2004 standing variation and has the potential to identify false positives More importantly, solely relying on modern population data to infer selection in the past leaves the approach prone to bias resulting from past demographic events, e.

Considering the effect of demographic change is especially important when studying Native American populations as European contact in the 15—16th resolucion 4100 de 2004 inflicted a resolucion 4100 de 2004 population decline in the Americas, followed by subsequent gene flow from Europe and Africa 16 Current paleogenomic methods allow a more direct approach to estimate natural selection as they enable us to monitor allele frequency changes through time under full examination of the respective population history and past episodes of cultural, demographic, and ecological change.

Recent ancient DNA studies have set this precedent by not only identifying but also by estimating the intensity of natural selection acting on polymorphisms associated with pigmentation and lactase persistence in European populations 15 Here we test the hypothesis that beneficial traits present in modern Central Andean populations evolved under selection and thus contributed to the increasing survivability and success of societies living in the high altitude environments of the Andes.

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