Much development and deployment activity has centered around GPRS, UMTS and IMT, also referred to G/3G wireless networks. However, TCP has. TCP over G and 3G. RFC TCP over G/3G February o at the data receiver (frequently a stack at or near the wireless device), o at the data sender (frequently a host in the Internet or possibly a gateway or proxy at the edge of a wireless network), or o at both. Abstract: Transmission control protocol (TCP) by IETF is one of the most widely used transport layer protocols in Internet. However, TCP has not been designed bearing in mind wireless networks. Especially, flow control features can perform less than optimally over wireless interfaces.


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After an intersystem handover, the network characteristics may be radically different, and, in fact, may be negatively affected by the initial configuration. This point argues against premature optimization by the TCP implementation. Various scheduling mechanisms can be deployed in order to maximize resource utilization.

If multiple users wish to transfer large amounts of data at the same time, the scheduler may have to repeatedly allocate and de-allocate resources for each user. tcp over 2.5 3g wireless networks

RFC - TCP over Second (G) and Third (3G) Generation Wireless Networks

We refer to periodic allocation and release of high-speed channels as Bandwidth Oscillation. Bandwidth Oscillation effects such as spurious retransmissions were identified elsewhere e. There are research studies [ 52 ], [ 54 ], which show that in some cases Bandwidth Oscillation can be the single most important factor in reducing throughput.

For fixed TCP parameters the achievable throughput depends on the pattern of Inamura, et al. When the frequency of resource allocation and de-allocation is tcp over 2.5 3g wireless networks high, there is no throughput degradation.

Standards for 3G wireless technologies provide mechanisms that can be used to combat the adverse effects of Bandwidth Oscillation.

RFC - TCP over Second (G) and Third (3G) Generation Wireless Networks

It is the consensus of the PILC Working Group that the best approach for avoiding adverse effects of Bandwidth Oscillation is proper wireless sub-network design [ 23 ]. The objective is not completeness, but merely to discuss some representative technologies and the issues that may arise with TCP performance.

Other documents discuss tcp over 2.5 3g wireless networks underlying technologies in more detail. In GSM, a user is assigned one timeslot downlink and one uplink.

TCP over 2.5G and 3G wireless networks

HSCSD allocates multiple timeslots to a user creating a fast circuit-switched link. GPRS is based on packet-switched technology that allows efficient sharing of radio resources among users and always-on capability.

Several terminals can share timeslots. The RLC protocol operating between a base station controller and a terminal provides ARQ capability over the radio link.

RFC - TCP over Second (G) and Third (3G) Generation Wireless Networks

The size of the PDUs may vary. Typically, bit PDUs are implemented [ 34 ]. This is the unit for link layer retransmission. For more fragmentation discussion, see Section 4. The FEC frame is the unit of interleaving.

Next several TCP optimization methods are introduced and their operation and performance is studied. Finally, conclusions are made about the use of TCP optimization methods in wireless networks.

There are several ways to guarantee reliability, in which acknowledgment and advertised window are two important concepts.


If the TCP sender doesn't receive an acknowledgment ACK of one certain segment during a certain time, the segment is retransmitted. By advertised window, the receiving TCP can inform the TCP sender that how much buffer the receiver has, so it prevents a fast host from taking all the buffers on a slower host.

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