UROLOGY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY EBOOK

The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, The anatomy of the human urinary system differs between males and A urinary tract obstruction is a urologic disease that can cause urinary retention. The Wikibook Anatomy and Physiology of Animals has a page on the topic  ‎Renal physiology · ‎Ureter · ‎Urinary bladder. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra together form the urinary tract, which acts as a plumbing system to drain urine from the kidneys, store it, and then release it during urination. 3 Physiology of the Urinary System. Urine Formation; Characteristics of Urine; Micturition. 4 Practice Quiz: Urinary System Anatomy.


UROLOGY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY EBOOK

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UROLOGY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY EBOOK

Water, glucoseamino acids, and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter the capillary blood.

Urinary System: Anatomy and Physiology with Interactive Pictures

Hydrogen, potassiumcreatinine, and drugs are removed from the peritubular blood and secreted by the tubule cells into the filtrate.

Characteristics of Urine In 24 hours, the marvelously complex kidneys filter some to liters of blood plasma through their glomeruli into the tubules. In 24 hours, only about 1. Urine urology anatomy and physiology nitrogenous wastes and unneeded substances.

Freshly voided urine is generally clear and pale to deep yellow. When formed, urine is sterile and slightly urology anatomy and physiology, but if allowed to stand, it takes on an ammonia odor caused by the action of bacteria on the urine solutes.

Urine pH is usually slightly acidic around 6but changes in body metabolism and certain foods may cause it to be much more acidic or basic. Whereas the specific gravity of pure water is 1. Solutes normally found in urine include sodium and potassium ions, urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, bicarbonate ions, and various other ions.

Micturition Micturition or voiding is the act of emptying the bladder. Ordinarily, the bladder continues to collect urine until about ml have accumulated. At about this point, stretching of the bladder wall activates stretch receptors.

Impulses transmitted to the sacral region of the spinal cord and then back to the bladder via the pelvic splanchnic nerves cause the bladder to go into reflex contractions.

UROLOGY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY EBOOK

As the contractions become stronger, stored urine is forced past the internal urethral sphincter into the upper part of the urethra. Because the lower urology anatomy and physiology sphincter is skeletal muscle and voluntarily controlled, we can choose to keep it closed or it can be relaxed so that urine is flushed from the body.

Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology.

  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection
  • Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology: Study Guide for Nurses
  • Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology
  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection
  • Anatomy And Physiology Questions - The Urinary System

Select all that apply. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urology anatomy and physiology tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense.

We also highlight the important structural and functional abnormalities that predispose the urinary tract to microbial infections.

Urinary system

In so doing, the urinary tract ensures the elimination urology anatomy and physiology metabolic products and toxic wastes generated in the kidneys. The process of constant urine flow in the upper urinary tract and intermittent elimination from the lower urinary tract also plays a crucially important part in cleansing the urinary tract, ridding it of microbes that might have already gained access 3.

When not eliminating urine, the urinary tract acts effectively as a closed system, inaccessible to the microbes. Its chief function is urology anatomy and physiology regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium by filtering the bloodreabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine.

In the first part of the nephron, Bowman's capsule filters blood from the circulatory system into the tubules.

Hydrostatic and osmotic pressure gradients facilitate filtration across a semipermeable membrane. The filtrate includes water, small molecules, and ions that easily pass through the filtration membrane.

However larger molecules such as proteins and blood cells are prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. The amount of filtrate produced every minute is called the glomerular filtration rate or GFR and amounts to litres per day.

This results in urology anatomy and physiology production of dilute, watery urine. In the case of the body being dehydrated, the urology anatomy and physiology reabsorb as much water as possible back into the blood to produce highly concentrated urine full of excreted ions and wastes.

The changes in excretion of water are controlled by antidiuretic hormone ADH. ADH is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland to help the body retain water.

When blood pressure is elevated, the kidneys can help to reduce blood pressure by reducing the volume of blood in the body.

The kidneys are able to reduce blood volume by reducing the reabsorption of water into the blood and producing watery, dilute urine.



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